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Banque de France Bulletin

The Banque de France Bulletin covers a range of subjects monitored, handled or studied by central banks. It serves as an information tool for a broad readership and offers educational insights so that all readers can form their own opinions.
As of the March-April 2018 edition, the articles will be published on a staggered basis and then translated into English.

Previously, the Quarterly Selection of Articles was published every three months and included a selection of articles that had already appeared in French.

As of the May-June 2019 issue, the Banque de France Bulletin includes an "Economic Research" section. In this section, Banque de France researchers present their views on a subject, condensed into a few non-technical pages, with charts and a bibliography for further reading.


Publication Banque de France Bulletin n°233 : article 3
The financial position of French companies: strengths and weaknesses on the eve of the pandemic

Non financial corporations entered the pandemic with several factors in their favour: three straight years of robust growth, higher profit shares, consistently low interest rates and increasing cash balances. ...

By Bureau Benjamin, Py Loriane
Thematic: Companies
  • Published on 03/29/2021
  • 17 pages
  • FR
  • PDF (510.4 KB)


Publication Banque de France Bulletin n°233 : article 1
The financial health of VSEs-SMEs: an essential determinant of their credit access

Since 2012, the Banque de France has carried out a quarterly survey of very small enterprises (VSEs) and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to assess their access to bank credit. The vast majority of demand for investment loans is met, with an...

By Gerardin Mathilde, Nicolas Théo
Thematic: Credit and financing
  • Published on 03/17/2021
  • 11 pages
  • EN
  • PDF (445.63 KB)


Publication Banque de France Bulletin n°232 : article 5
Insurers’ investments weather the crisis despite tensions

Investments by insurers established in France reached EUR 2,813 billion at end-2019, up EUR 211 billion on the previous year. Under pressure from the further fall in interest rates, insurers favoured bonds issued by the private sector and by non-euro...

By Arias Liliana, Capitaine Gaëlle, Ferrand-Tenot Élodie, Guimiot Frédéric, Roero Côme
Thematic: Credit and financing
  • Published on 03/08/2021
  • 16 pages
  • EN
  • PDF (570.12 KB)


Publication Banque de France Bulletin n°232 : article 8
The link between money and inflation since 2008

The unconventional monetary policies implemented by central banks in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, and subsequently in that of the Covid-19 health crisis, have led to a faster increase in money than in prices, prompting a review of the link...

Thematic: Economic research
  • Published on 02/26/2021
  • 8 pages
  • EN
  • PDF (429.26 KB)


Publication Banque de France Bulletin n°232 : article 7
Outstanding loans to enterprises increased sharply in France in the first half of 2020

Since the outbreak of the Covid-19 crisis in March 2020, outstanding bank loans to enterprises have surged: between end-February and end-June 2020, they rose by EUR 101 billion. This upswing can be attributed first and foremost to substantial drawing...

By Vinas Frédéric
Thematic: Companies
  • Published on 02/24/2021
  • 7 pages
  • EN
  • PDF (343.75 KB)


Publication Banque de France Bulletin n°232 : article 3
Banks from 2008 to 2019: net income affected by a fall in intermediation margins but lower provisions

The onset of persistently low interest rates in the euro area during the decade 2008 2019 impacted the accounts of financial intermediaries, as monetary policy measures supported demand for credit and led to an increase in the size of the balance...

By Cruzet Thibault, Horny Guillaume, Lattaud Audrey, Wicky Yann
Thematic: Financial stability and financial system
  • Published on 02/22/2021
  • 18 pages
  • EN
  • PDF (587.95 KB)


Publication Banque de France Bulletin n°232 : article 6
France’s national wealth in 2019 Growth underpinned by stock market prices

France’s national wealth (or net worth) continued to expand in 2019, reaching EUR 16,421 billion at the end of the year or 8.3 times its net domestic product. The robust rise (+4.8% after +4.4% in 2018) was driven by an increase in the country’s...

By Karmous Inès, Desseaux Laure
Thematic: Macroeconomics, microeconomics and structures
  • Published on 02/18/2021
  • 9 pages
  • EN
  • PDF (249.98 KB)


Publication Banque de France Bulletin n°232 : article 4
Despite the decline in the use of cash, it remains the most widely used means of payment in France

In 2019, the European Central Bank (ECB) updated its survey on household payment attitudes in the euro area. As in the previous survey (2016), it appears that cash remains the preferred means of payment in number terms for day-to-day purchases. However...

By Chouteau Lorraine, Laplace Emmanuelle, Politronacci Emmanuelle
  • Published on 02/09/2021
  • 11 pages
  • EN
  • PDF (741.23 KB)